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Bonis site

The Bonis site

The hydrographic basin of Bonis is located in the municipality of Longobucco (39° 28′ N, 16° 30′ E), in the territory of Sila Greca in the province of Cosenza (Fig. 2). The basin, a tributary of the Cino stream, covers an area of 139 hectares and extends from an altitude of 975 m (Colle Petrarella) to 1330 m above sea level, with an average elevation of 1131 m. The climate is typically mountain-mediterranean in southern Italy (Longobardi et al. 2016), characterized in the inland areas by cool to cold winters with snow and mild to cool summers. The Pinutello station (currently decommissioned) recorded average annual precipitation of 1124 mm, average temperatures of 1 °C in the coldest month, and 17 °C in the warmest month. The annual average temperature is around 8.7 °C (Cecita, 39° 23′ N, 16° 32′ E).


Referring to the Pavari classification (1916), Bonis falls into the warm subzone of Fagetum. Pedologically, the basin has soils on plutonic rocks, mainly belonging to the Typic Xerumbrepts association, while on the river terrace, soils in the Ultic Haploxeralfs association are present.

Approximately 93% of the total basin area is covered by forest, predominantly with artificially originated Calabrian pine (Pinus laricio Poiret) stands (Fig. 2). The stands were planted in 1958 with an average density of 2425 saplings ha−1 (Nicolaci et al., 2015) and underwent a thinning treatment in 1993 with a basal area (BA) removal of 25 % (Callegari et al., 2003). Currently, there are two active meteorological stations on Bonis located at the closure section and Petrarella. The stations are equipped with sensors to monitor air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric precipitation, atmospheric pressure, global solar radiation, and snow height using an ultrasonic snow gauge.


At the closure basin, a GeoVES Smx-485 multi-parametric probe is installed to measure chemical-physical parameters and water quality, including water level, pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, redox, and water temperature. The water level in the basin is also measured using an ultrasonic sensor. In the past, two other meteorological stations were active: one from 1986 to 2000 in the Don Bruno area in the southwest and another from 2005 to 2008 located at the Eddy Covariance tower in the southern Bonis area for measuring mass exchanges (CO2, H2O) and energy (sensible and latent heat, H and LE) between the forest and the atmosphere. 

(Source: Collalti et al., 2017 ; Testolin et al., 2023)

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